Delusion - Definition 



Part 2

A delusion is commonly defined as a false belief, and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. In psychiatry, the definition is necessarily more precise and implies that the belief is pathological (the result of an illness or illness process).

Delusions typically occur in the context of neurological or mental illness, although they are not tied to any particular disease and have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both physical and mental). However, they are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders and particularly in schizophrenia.

Contents [showhide]

1 Psychiatric definition

2 Primary and Secondary Delusions

3 Diagnostic issues

4 See also

5 Further reading

6 References

Psychiatric definition

The psychiatrist and philosopher Karl Jaspers first defined the three main criteria for a belief to be considered delusional in his book General Psychopathology. These criteria are:

  • certainty (held with absolute conviction)
  • incorrigibility (not changeable by compelling counterargument or proof to the contrary)
  • impossibility or falsity of content (implausible, bizarre or patently untrue)

These criteria still live on in modern psychiatric diagnosis. In the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a delusion is defined as:

A false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly sustained despite what almost everybody else believes and despite what constitutes incontrovertible and obvious proof or evidence to the contrary. The belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other members of the person's culture or subculture (e.g. it is not an article of religious faith).

Primary and Secondary Delusions

Jaspers originally made a distinction between primary and secondary delusions.

According to Jaspers, primary delusions (sometimes called true delusions) are distinguished by a transformation of meaning, so that the world, or aspects of it, are interpreted in a radically different way by the delusional person. To others, this intepretation is 'un-understandable' in terms of the normal mental causality, mood, environmental influences and other psychological or psychopathological factors. Jaspers describes four types of primary delusion:

  1. delusional intuition - where delusions arrive 'out of the blue', without external cause.
  2. delusional perception - where a normal percept is interpreted with delusional meaning. For example, a person sees a red car and knows that this means their food is being poisoned by the police.
  3. delusional atmosphere - where the world seems subtly altered, uncanny, portentous or sinister. This resolves into a delusion, usually in a revelatory fashion, which seems to explain the unusual feeling of anticipation.
  4. delusional memory - where a delusional belief is based upon the recall of memory or false memory for a past experience. For example, a man recalls seeing a woman laughing at the bus stop several weeks ago and now realises that this person was laughing because the man has animals living inside him.

Secondary delusions (sometimes called delusion-like ideas) are considered to be, at least in principle, understandable in the context of a person's life history, personality, mood state or presence of other psychopathology. For example, a person becomes depressed, suffers very low mood and self-esteem, and subsequently believes they are responsible for some terrible crime which they did not commit.

Diagnostic issues

However, the modern definition and Jaspers's original criteria have been criticised, as counter-examples can be shown for every defining feature.

Studies on psychiatric patients have shown that delusions can be seen to vary in intensity and conviction over time which suggests that certainty and incorrigibility are not necessary components of a delusional belief1.

Delusions do not necessarily have to be false or 'incorrect inferences about external reality'2. Some religious or spiritual beliefs (such as 'I believe in the existence of God') including those diagnosed as delusional, by their nature may not be falsifiable, and hence cannot be described as false or incorrect3.

In other situations the delusion may turn out to be true belief4. For example, delusional jealousy, where a person believes that their partner is being unfaithful (and may even follow them into the bathroom believing them to be seeing their lover even during the briefest of partings) may result in the faithful partner being driven to infidelity by the constant and unreasonable strain put on them by their delusional spouse. In this case the delusion does not cease to be a delusion because the content later turns out to be true.

In other cases, the delusion may be assumed to be false by doctor or psychiatrist assessing the belief, because it seems to be unlikely, bizarre or held with excessive conviction. Psychiatrists rarely have the time or resources to check the validity of a person’s claims leading to some true beliefs to be erroneously classified as delusional5. This is known as the Martha Mitchell effect, after the wife of the attorney general who alleged that illegal activity was taking place in the White House. At the time her claims were thought to be signs of mental illness, and only after the Watergate scandal broke was she proved right (and hence sane).

Similar factors have led to criticisms of Jaspers's definition of true delusions as being ultimately 'un-understandable'. Critics (such as R. D. Laing) have argued that this leads to the diagnosis of delusions being based on the subjective understanding of a particular psychiatrist, who may not have access to all the information which might make a belief otherwise interpretable.

Another difficulty with the diagnosis of delusions is that almost all of these features can be found in normal beliefs. Many religious beliefs hold exactly the same features, yet are not considered delusional. Similarly, as Thomas Kuhn demonstrated in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (his groundbreaking book on the history and sociology of science), scientists can hold strong fixed beliefs in scientific theories despite considerable counter evidence for their validity6.

These factors have led the psychiatrist Anthony David to note that "there is no acceptable (rather than accepted) definition of a delusion"7. In practice psychiatrists tend to diagnose a belief as delusional if it is either patently bizarre, causing significant distress, or excessively pre-occupies the patient, especially if the person is subsequently unswayed in their belief by counter-evidence or reasonable argument.

See also

Further reading

  • Bell, V., Halligan, P.W. & Ellis, H. (2003) Beliefs about delusions. The Psychologist, 16(8), 418-423. Full text (
  • Coltheart, M. & Davis, M. (2000) (Eds.) Pathologies of belief. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0631221360
  • Persaud, R. (2003) From the Edge of the Couch: Bizarre Psychiatric Cases and What They Teach Us About Ourselves. Bantam. ISBN 0553813463.


1Myin-Germeys, I., Nicolson, N.A. & Delespaul, P.A.E.G. (2001) ( The context of delusional experiences in the daily life of patients with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 31, 489-498.
2Spitzer, M. (1990) ( On defining delusions. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 31 (5), 377-97
3Young, A.W. (2000).Wondrous strange: The neuropsychology of abnormal beliefs. In M. Coltheart & M. Davis (Eds.) Pathologies of belief (pp.47-74). Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0631221360
4Jones, E. (1999) ( The phenomenology of abnormal belief. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, 6, 1-16.
5Maher, B.A. (1988) Anomalous experience and delusional thinking: The logic of explanations. In T. Oltmanns and B. Maher (eds) Delusional Beliefs. New York: Wiley Interscience. ISBN 0471836354
6Kuhn, T. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226458083
7David, A.S. (1999) On the impossibility of defining delusions. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, 6 (1), 17-20

fi:Deluusio ru:Бред


Sponsored Links for Delusion

[what´s this?]

Alzheimer's SymptomsMemory

 Loss & Delusions are Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease.

Schizophrenia SymptomsWhat Are The Symptoms Of Schizophrenia? Learn More Here.

DelusionsGet Early questions answered now on the improved Try it.

Delusions at AmazonBuy books at and save. Qualified orders over $25 ship free.


Part 2


TrinityDelusion2Thess8-12--Is Jesus Real To You  —Or a delusional,  2nd  Person of The Trindirty.htm ?

2 Thessalonians 2  SEE 8-12  In Context |Click here [Context]

Verse 9 activity of Satan, with all power and signs and false wonders,

IT IS OBVIOUS TO SOME THAT THE Nicene Council Members--    

WERE Having—(open)-- Delusions --that were derived from deceptionsf

false wonders or Compare KJV/w/Strong’s N0’s 2Th 2:9

As for the one searching for bad, it will come upon him.”—Proverbs 11:27.

a mental disorder—0pen- In Context |- Open The Trinity


Where Were the Nicene Council Members When God Was Creating Things-Compare -JOB 38-2&4

Did They Bring Forth God and His Only Begotten Son into Existence as to Explain Their Make Up.-- Prov8-22.  Compare JOB Chapters 38 and 39. and Rom 10:3  Details in TrinityReferenceLibrary2.htm


For The Message Bible Online Open


One Two Three Equals One----

1 Jn 2-16(GNB)  none of this comes from the Father; it all comes from the world.


Everything that belongs to the world---what the sinful self desires, what people see and want, and everything in this world that people are so proud of--- none of this comes from the Father; it all comes from the world.

Open         OneTwoThreeEqualsOne.htm

In the Beginning Man Created God!
And one was not enough.
So he created three,
And called them Holy Trinity’C
/H Trinity, Man Created God
C/H- Trinity Techniques (1)

 C/H -Trinity Techniques (2)


Some Say The Trinity is as Queer as a 3 Dollar Bill --                  


   "a shady deal"; Open  shady, tricky  3: marked by skill in deception;-From the Master -- Open  SatansMainPurpose.htm


Ie --Something definitely queer about this doctrine   Open    GentilePhilosophyPLUS.htm----


Queer :  adj
1: beyond or deviating from the usual or expected; "a curious hybrid accent"; "her speech has a funny twang"; "they have some funny ideas about war"; "had an odd name"; "the peculiar aromatic odor of cloves"; "
something definitely queer about this town"; "what a rum fellow"; "singular behavior" [syn: curious, funny, odd, peculiar, rum, rummy, singular]
not as expected; "there was something fishy about the accident"; "up to some funny business"; "some definitely queer goings-on"; "a shady deal"; "her motives were suspect"; "suspicious behavior" [syn: fishy, funny, shady, suspect, suspicious]
3: homosexual or arousing homosexual desires [syn: gay, homophile(a)] (noun)



  No Man made Phantom Trinity Vocabulary is Above **YHWH’S Inspired Provided Vocabulary.

All the Words (Vocabulary ) in Every Verse in The Holy Scriptures Were Inspired

By God ( YHWH )Only Holy

No Man made Phantom Trinity Vocabulary is Above **YHWH’S Inspired Provided Vocabulary.

(1) homoousios, Homoousion homoiousios---- Unbiblical Words to Describe Jesus—

- homoosios (same substance as)         

Historical Definitions of The---- Unbiblical Words to Describe Jesus-- to Declare Him God the Son.

Declaring Jesus  God the Son.Words Can Be Used in True Doctrines---Compare 2 Tim 3-16, 17  Rev 21-8  Rev 22-16-21


Click (2),+Homoousion+Homoiousios


Click (3)  Constantine himself proposed the wording of the new church-wide creed. To exclude the viewpoints of Arius, Constantine argued that the Greek term homoousios should be used to describe the relationship of Jesus and His Father. This term is usually translated into English by the phrase, "being of the same substance." ... In fact, several pre-Nicene Christian writers had used that term to describe the Deity of the Son. However, the term doesn't appear anywhere in Scripture, and it had never been included in any of the early congregational creeds. (p. 132)

For Full Article Click Here  FOR 3 Constantine's persuasive skills

The Nicene Creed

 Click (4)  The big thing which happened was the Nicene Creed, but in this way: Most held out at first for a Scriptural language and expression to make clear against the Arians what the catholic doctrine had been, but as the discussions progressed it became evident that there was no Scriptural vocabulary which would correctly express the orthodox teaching. They lighted on a philosophical term, homoosios (same substance as) to express what they meant and what had always been the catholic teaching, but there was still needed a formula to summarize and convey their meaning For Full Article Click Here-

Click (5)  More References on History.

Click (6)


Click (7)

Click (8)  What is Truth---- 



C/H--If Jesus is God, the Bible has many Contradictions


Click Here  FOR Question/insight #59: Should it be considered heresy today to reexamine decisions, practices, and traditions that were established by church leaders in the very early centuries -- decisions, practices, and traditions that have disallowed the full participation of women in church?      


More References. Alternative to Mysticism                    

The Only True way to Describe Jesus and His God and Father (1 Cor 8-5,6 -John 17-3) is by using the Vocabulary

  That YHWH gave His Inspired  Holy Sacred Scriptural Writers--He Defines Himself and His Son with His Holy Words –Not Fantasies of Man—(Or Satan’s Lies—Which He Keeps Secret-We Only Know About Him ( Satan or YHWH God) What The Scriptures Has Recorded) 2 Tim 3-16-17- Rev 22-16-21.The Main Verses are-- Rev 4-11- John 1.1 -1 -3, 14,18  --John 3-34 --55-26-17-5 and they must Harmonize with <Prov 8-22-30—Col 1-15-20—Rev 1-1--3-12-14—19-10-13.  It is very clear that ---the word was God ---is not in Harmony with the other Verses Quoted -----and therefore doesn’t fit ---GWGPC Must be applied to the Second part of the John 1.1 Verse. .All other verses in the So-called Oneness or Trinity Proof Text --Only describe the attributes that YHWH Created in His First Creation—and 1-Tim 3-16 and 1-John 5-7 have been Tagged as not supported earlier then the eight or nine century as it is rendered in the KJV and Some others.

Read  1Tim316.htm  And Life.htm

Jesus was brought Forth ,Born, Given Birth, Made or Created -- to have Eternity—Prov 8-22-25 Rev 3-12-14.

Only Jesus’ Father and God is THE ETERNAL.  From eternity is--- continuance without end----

THE ETERNAL—Can and Did Create his Son to have eternity From his beginning--From

being brought Forth ,Born, Given Birth or Created.—These Words are Inspired Vocabulary---Review the uninspired Vocabulary of Oneness and TRINESS.


John 17-3- Joh 17:3 KJV And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.-----eternal----Meaning From the Time YHWH Grants it.

(LITV)  And this is everlasting life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom You have sent.

NSB 17-3--“This is everlasting life that they should have *deep, intimate knowledge of you, the only true God, and Jesus

(MKJV) 1-Tim 3-16  Fight the good fight of faith. Lay hold on eternal life, to which you are also called and have professed a good profession before many witnesses.


For More See The Entire C/H--

SBT Believes It Can Get The Truth Out Of Any Bible—

                      Only Because of a Trained Eye-And Applying it

                            On Good Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias –For Accuracy




                       C/H-- BestBiblesPlus.htm


The Holy Bible Was Written So We Could Know The Truth and Not Myths—


–SO HELP US ALL Y.eH.oW.aH  in English Jehovah


1 John

1 John 3:11-13 - [Verse 12 in Original Greek]

11 For this is the message which you have heard from the beginning, that we should love one another; 12 not as Cain, who was of the evil one and slew his brother. And for what reason did he slay him? Because his deeds were evil, and his brother's were righteous. 13 Do not be surprised, brethren, if the world hates you.


The Trinity Exactly Makes---Jesus’ Father and God Appear Evil----How So - Open TheEVILSideOFTheTRINITY.htm





 For Myths ---Open -- Myths.htm




  C/H-- TETRAGRAMMATON.htm –Testifier----



If You go to a Congregation that Teaches all the Above ---You can feel Safe and not Sorry about that--

Read Heb-1o-23-26.  SBT is only a Reference Library—Not The Salvation Congregation !!!

Seek Congregations that only use Bible Inspired Vocabulary To Define Bible Topics

 No Man made Phantom  Vocabulary is Above **YHWH’S Inspired Provided Vocabulary.

Compare To  -C/H--CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Homoousion


GWGPC-RULE   God can not Lie  See   JOHN1onePLUS.htm


Addition Reading


 Pagan Themes in Christian Tradition

Egyptian Religious Conc


Egyptian and Pagan Themes in Christian Tradition -- New Hartford Uncensored Discussion Forum

... from Egyptian and Pagan Themes in Christianity at:  ...  - 25k - Cached - More from this site



Egyptian Alternative to Mysticism WHAT IS Mysticism open WHATisMysticism.htm

Joh 18:37 I bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

John 5-26  For as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself,--- Open  AFact.htm

Open Index


OPEN--Delusional_disorder and TrinityInfection.htm  --- AAisJesusRealToYOU.htm


Return To Index