a well known
instrument of most cruel and ignominious punishment, borrowed by
the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians; to it were affixed
among the Romans, down to the time of Constantine the Great, the
guiltiest criminals, particularly the basest slaves, robbers, the
authors and abetters of insurrections,
and occasionally in the provinces, at the arbitrary pleasure of
the governors, upright and peaceable men also, and even Roman
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But what is Koine
Before Alexander the Great, the Greek language was an assortment of localized
dialects. Alexander wanted a Greek language common to all peoples. It was
called 'koine' or common. By the time the New
Testament was written (mid to late 1st century A.D.) koine
Greek had become the common language in Israel.
Koine Greek become more popular in Rome than Latin. One reason was Rome acceptance of all cult
religions as long as the Emperor was worshipped as well. One of the titles of
the Emperor was the koine word, "kurios," ( ku/riov )
which means "Lord." It was a divine title of the emperor! It was
the main word used by the LXX (Septuagint) translators of the Old Testament
when they translated the Hebrew word, YHVH.