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Forms of the Cross –Compare the Below With What
is In-- CROSSplus.htm
The cross is often shown in different shapes and sizes, in many
different styles. It may be used in personal jewelry, or used on top of
church buildings. It is shown both empty, and with the body of Christ (corpus)
nailed to it, in which case it is typically called a crucifix.
Roman Catholic depictions of the cross
are often crucifixes, in order to emphasize Christ's sacrifice; but many Protestant
traditions depict the cross without the corpus, in order to emphasize the
Crosses are a prominent feature of Christian cemeteries,
either carved on gravestones or as sculpted stelae. Because of this death meaning, planting
small crosses is sometimes used in countries of Christian culture to protest
Crosses have been erected or carved on pagan sites of worship like mountain
tops or menhirs to counter their influences. In Catholic
countries, crosses are often erected on the peaks of prominent mountains,
such as the Zugspitze or Mount
Royal, so as to be visible over the entire surrounding area.
Perhaps the best-known form of the Christian cross is that depicted
here, called the Latin cross, an equal-armed cross with a longer foot. It
may be so called because it is the type of cross used in the Latin (Roman
Catholic) church, as opposed to the Eastern Orthodox cross.
Other forms of the Christian cross include:
- the Celtic Cross, with the crossing circled, as
in the standing High crosses;
- St. Andrew's Cross, the decussate
cross that takes the form of the Roman numberal
10, an 'X' shape or saltire, the symbol of Scotland;
- the Cross of Lorraine, with a smaller bar
above the main horizontal one;
- the Eastern Orthodox Cross, like the Cross
of Lorraine, sometimes with a crossbar at the bottom (☦);
- the Maltese Cross or Greek
Cross with all members the same shape and form;
- the Cross of St. Peter, an upside down
cross, also a symbol of Satanism;
Cross of St. Anthony, or Tau Cross, because it is shaped as a capital 'T'.
while the overwhelming majority of forms of crosses are symbolic of
Christianity, it should be noted that a very few, such as the cross moline, are not. See cross (heraldry).
See also: Christian symbolism, Sign of the Cross
Compare the crossed circle of the Norse god Odin. 'Cross'
itself is a word taken from Old
Norse, which supplanted the former word 'rood' in Old English. See Roodmas, Rood
screen, Rood loft.
theological views of the cross
A number of Christian Anabaptist
theologians including John
H. Yoder and Walter Wink suggest an alternative reading of the
cross in Jesus's teaching. Instead of seeing
Jesus instructions to "take up the cross" as simply a spiritual
call to endure suffering, they interpret the phrase as a call to a life of
radical Christian discipleship that may end in death at the hands of
the state. For these theologians, accepting the possibility of crucifixion
(often the penalty for political prisoners in Roman times) means rejecting
the use of violence as well. This view would be most prevalent
and other Peace churches with a history of martyrdom.
This view is for the most part shared by Roman Catholic and Orthodox
theologians, with the exception that they do not completely reject the use
Since the 1930s Jehovah's Witnesses have taught that Christ
died suspended not on a cross, but on a torture stake. The New Testament
word for cross is stauros, which
can refer either to a cross or to a single upright position stake without a
crossbeam; Jehovah's Witnesses accept only the latter meaning, believing
the cross to be a pagan symbol. Cruciform symbols do antedate
Christianity; see cross for more information.
For Muslims and Jews the symbol of the Cross or
are sacrilegious as God cannot be depicted in any
physical form. For more on Jesus see Non-Christian perspectives on
Encyclopedia Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q
of Caesarea (~275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius
Pamphili, "Eusebius [the friend] of Pamphilus") was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is
often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in
recording the history of the early Christian
church. An earlier history by Hegesippus
that he referred to has not survived.
Eusebius describes in his Life of Constantine (To Open
Click)  (http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/NPNF2-01/Npnf2-01-29.htm#P7646_3165242)
how the site of the Holy Sepulchre,
originally a site of veneration for the Christian community in Jerusalem,
had been covered with earth and a temple of Venus had been built on top.
(Although Eusebius does not say as much, this would probably have been done
as part of Hadrian's
reconstruction of Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina in 135,
following the destruction of the Jewish
Revolt of 70
and Bar Kokhba's revolt
Following his conversion to Christianity, Emperor Constantine ordered in
about 325/326 that the
site be uncovered and instructed Saint Macarius, Bishop
of Jerusalem, to build a church on the site. In
this Life, Eusebius does not
mention the finding of the True Cross.
Socrates Scholasticus (died c. 380), in
his Ecclesiastical History, gives a full description of the discovery [2
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For Who was
Eusebius From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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redirects here. For other uses, see Eusebius (disambiguation).
Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260–c. 341),
"the" Eusebius: the famous historian of the Christian Church.
· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eusebius_of_Caesarea---Eusebius of Caesarea (approximate date)
by | page 1 of 1
Finding of the Holy Cross By-hist.edu see at end --
Incidents leading up to the Finding of the Holy Cross are
not all that edifying, in fact very shocking.
Murder of Fausta
Shortly after the Council of Nicaea Constantine returned to Rome. What
happened on his arrival we may never know exactly, but he murdered Crispus, his son of a previous marriage, then had his wife,
Fausta, stabbed to death and drowned or scalded to
death in her hot bath. It is said his mother, St. Helena, a Christian for some
years, went screaming through the palace, and her journey to Jerusalem, which
began immediately, perhaps from Naples, may have been in expiation for her
son's crime. She was 78 at the time.
The general area of Christ's death and resurrection had
already been deter mined, safely concealed under a pavilion supporting a pagan
temple which Hadrian had deliberately erected over the sacred spot in order to
smother all Christian sentiments. Bishop Macarius of Jerusalem
had already spoken to Constantine
about the possibility of finding the exact locations.
Helena was very wealthy in her own right, and Constantine put his murdered
wife's estate, together with resources from the Empire at Helena's disposal,
and on arriving in Jerusalem she commissioned a team of priests and
archeologists (such as they were in those days) to find the exact spots.
As Eusebius tells us, hundreds were employed in the "dig".
Buildings, temples and terraces were torn down, and several tons of dirt
removed, till after some weeks the limestone hill of Calvary was exposed. The
workers continued to chop away to separate this holy hill from surrounding
rock, when suddenly in a ditch three crosses were discovered. It was like a
miracle. Bishop Macarius prayed, "Make known to
us, O Lord, which of these three crosses served for your glory".
A dying woman was brought and one by one the crosses were
touched upon her; as the third cross was place on her she suddenly rose from
the stretcher and walked away. When Constantine heard the news he wrote a
glowing letter to Bishop Macarius, then immediately
commanded that fitting shrines be built over the site, dedicated 335, as the
pilgrim Silvia Eletheria described in 393, three
buildings: a church in honor of the passion, a shine in honor of the cross, and
a third in honor of the resurrection.
St. Helena herself commanded that the true cross be divided, one part left
in Jerusalem, one part to Constantinople (both eventually lost), and another to
Rome from which slivers were taken till now it is scattered all over the world.
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Notes—Being Compiled (1)--In this Life, Eusebius does not
mention the finding of the True Cross
(2)-More Notes are being –Compiled
to Compare What is In-- CROSSplus.htm
his Life of Constantine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eusebius_of_Caesarea#The_Life_of_Constantine
 2.4 The Life of Constantine
CROSS: 1, 141, 160; 2, 309; 3, 251, 309-310, 312, 313-----
the: 12, 412
EXALTATION OF THE: 3, 310
finding of the: 3, 310; 5, 208
form of the: 3, 312
INVENTION OF THE: 3, 310; 5, 208
Ladies of the: 12,
ORDERS OF THE: 3, 311
St. Andrew's: 1,
171; 3, 310
sign of the: 3, 309
Sisters of the:
stations of the: 11,
For as the Father hath life in himself;
so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself,--- Open AFact.htm