New International Version

 Ge 16    

 Ge 16


The Messenger of the LORD found her by a spring in the desert, the spring on the way to Shur.


The angel of the LORD found Hagar near a spring in the desert; it was the spring that is beside




The New John Gill Exposition
of the Entire Bible

Genesis 16:7

And the angel of the Lord found her
This is the first time that mention is made of an angel in Scripture, but is not to be understood of a created angel, but of a divine Person, as appears from (Genesis 16:10,13) , the uncreated angel, the Logos or Son of God, called the Angel of God's presence, and the Angel of the covenant, (Isaiah 63:9) (Malachi 3:1) ; who often appeared in an human form before his incarnation, being sent by his divine Father on one account or another; and hence called an angel, a messenger, or one sent, as in the fulness of time he was sent in human nature to be the Redeemer of his people; though many of the Jewish writers take this angel to be a man sent of God. Gersom





Now the angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur.

ay(h-l( rBdMB eyMh aye(-l( hwhy j)lm H)cmYw (8799)
. rW$ jrdB

16:7 And the d angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.

(d) Which was Christ, as appears in (Genesis 16:13,18:17).

16:9 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, e Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.

(e) God rejects no estate of people in their misery, but sends them comfort.

16:12 And he will be a wild man; his hand [will be] against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and f he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.

(f) That is, the Ishmaelites will be a separate people by themselves and not part of another people.

16:13 And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, g Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?

(g) She rebukes her own dullness and acknowledges God’s graces, who was present with her everywhere.

Verse 7. The angel of the Lord
That Jesus Christ, in a body suited to the dignity of his nature, frequently appeared to the patriarchs, has been already intimated. That the person mentioned here was greater than any created being is sufficiently evident from the following particulars:-

1. From his promising to perform what God alone could do, and foretelling what God alone could know; "I will multiply thy seed exceedingly," , Genesis 16:10; "Thou art with child, and shalt bear a son," , Genesis 16:11; "He will be a wild man," , Genesis 16:12. All this shows a prescience which is proper to God alone.

2. Hagar considers the person who spoke to her as God, calls him El, and addresses him in the way of worship, which, had he been a created angel, he would have refused. See Revelation 19:10;; 22:9.

3. Moses, who relates the transaction, calls this angel expressly JEHOVAH; for, says he, she called shem Yehovah, the NAME of the LORD that spake to her, Genesis 16:13. Now this is a name never given to any created being.

4. This person, who is here called malach Yehovah, the Angel of the Lord, is the same who is called hammalach haggoel, the redeeming Angel or the Angel the Redeemer, Genesis 48:16; malach panaiv, the Angel of God's presence, Isaiah 63:9; and malach habberith, the Angel of the Covenant, Malachi 3:1; and is the same person which the Septuagint, ; Isaiah 9:6, term μεγαλησβουλησαγγελοσ, the Angel of the Great Counsel or Design, viz., of redeeming man, and filling the earth with righteousness.

5. These things cannot be spoken of any human or created being, for the knowledge, works, , attributed to this person are such as belong to God; and as in all these cases there is a most evident personal appearance, Jesus Christ alone can be meant; for of God the Father it has been ever true that no man hath at any time seen his shape

Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament

The angel of Jehovah?
This being can hardly be thought of as a creature, despite the usual meaning of the word angel. This is one of those O.T. intimations of personal distinctions with God HimselfF8 and is definitely a hint of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, revealed in the N.T. Those who find here a Christophany, therefore, are not necessarily wrong. The words refer to the Lord himself.F9 The Biblical writers constantly speak of the angel of the Lord as Divine, calling him Jehovah without the least reserve.F10 The teaching here implied of there being a plurality of Persons in the Godhead is in perfect harmony with Gen. 1:26; 11:7, etc. We shall encounter other examples of the same thing in the O.T. This is the very first occurrence in the Bible of this phraseology. This angel was God Himself, that is, another pre-incarnate appearance of the Messiah.F11


Adam Clark Commentary
 • Gill's Exposition
 • Geneva Study Bible
 • David Guzik's Commentaries
 • Jamieson, Fausset, Brown
 • Matthew Henry Complete
 • Matthew Henry Concise
 • Treasury of Scripture
 • Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Geneva Study Bible
 · Jamieson, Fausset, Brown
 · Matthew Henry Complete
 · Matthew Henry Concise
 · Scofield Reference Notes
 · Treasury of Scripture
 · Wesley's Explanatory Notes

GEB -> Study Notes on 16:7
GSB -> Study Notes on 16:7
JFB -> Commentary on 16:7
MHC-COM -> Commentary on 16:7
MHC-CON -> Commentary on 16:7
SRN -> Study Notes on 16:7
TSK -> Commentary on 16:7 TSK -> Entry for 16:7
WEN -> Notes on 16:7
NTB -> Afflictions And Adversities; Angel (Holy Trinity); Angel (a spirit); Lahai-Roi; Prayer; Servant; Shur
TTT -> Deserts; Fountains and Springs
EBD -> Angel; Beer-lahai-roi; Shur
SBD -> Angel of the Lord; Shur

a. She fled from her presence: As Hagar escaped this difficult situation the Angel of the Lord (here, the pre-incarnate presence of Jesus) met her by a spring of water in the wilderness.

i. We can assume that this was God, in the Person of Jesus Christ, appearing to Abraham before His incarnation and birth at Bethlehem. We assume this because of God the Father it says, No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him (John 1:18), and no man has ever seen God in the Person of the Father (1 Timothy 6:16). Therefore, if God appeared to someone in human appearance in the Old Testament (and no one has seen God the Father) it makes sense the appearance is of the eternal Son, the Second Person of the Trinity, before His incarnation in Bethlehem.

Write the Commentaries and ask them how they can have it both ways ---Above Jesus is an angel below he his not

Sbt Does Not Get Into Criticisms of Individuals or Groups or organizations. Unscriptual Traditions –Is the Main Concern -Quoting Christ is not Criticisms—it is a Christians Duty--  Study Ephesians 6:10-18 - [Verse 12 in Original Greek]  

Open PurposeOfReligion.htm

7. FACT: The Bible Teaches That Jesus Is Not An Angel...

No angel is or can ever be called God's son

Hbr 1:5, 6

World not in subjection to any angel

Hbr 2:5

He did not take on the nature of angels

Hbr 2:16

Glorified with God -- not the angels

Jhn 17:5

All power given to Him, in heaven and earth

Mat 28:18

He has a name that is above all names

Phl 2:9, 10

God will not share His glory with any other

Isa 42:8


Chapter 1 - Read This Chapter



Study Resource List

BCC -> Commentary on 1:6
DSN -> Synopsis on 1:6
GEB -> Study Notes on 1:6
GSB -> Study Notes on 1:6
JFB -> Commentary on 1:6
MHC-COM -> Commentary on 1:6
MHC-CON -> Commentary on 1:6
PNT -> Commentary on 1:6
RWP -> Study Notes on 1:6
SRN -> Study Notes on 1:6
TSK -> Commentary on 1:6 TSK -> Entry for 1:6
WEN -> Notes on 1:6
NTB -> Angel (a spirit); Birthright; Firstborn; God; Jesus, The Christ; Jesus, The Christ (continued); Quotations And Allusions
TTT -> Angels; Christ is God; Excellency and Glory of Christ, The
EBD -> Birthright
PWP -> Devotional using 1:6


And when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says, "AND LET ALL THE ANGELS OF GOD WORSHIP

otan de palin eisagagh| (5632) ton prwtotokon eiv thn oikoumenhn, legei, (5719) Kai proskunhsatwsan (5657) autw| pantev aggeloi qeou. 

Burton Coffman
 • Barnes' New Testament
 • Darby's Synopsis
 • Gill's Exposition
 • Geneva Study Bible
 • Jamieson, Fausset, Brown
 • Matthew Henry Complete
 • Matthew Henry Concise
 • People's New Testament
 • Robertson's Word Pictures
 • Treasury of Scripture
 • Wesley's Explanatory Notes

"When he had made purification of sins" is the credential which makes Christ king by right of purchase. The United States of America governs Alaska, because it was purchased from the Russian government for $7,000,000.00 in gold. Far greater was the price Christ paid for his human creation, buying them back when they had fallen into sin and were thereby forfeit to Satan. Yes, "Ye were bought with a price"! (1?Corinthians 6:20). And what was it? "Take heed unto yourselves, and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit hath made you bishops, to feed the church of God which he purchased with his own blood" (Acts 20:28). It is perhaps impossible fully to understand why such a redemption was necessary, but every verse of the sacred scriptures is oriented to the sublime fact that man's incredible conduct in the garden of Eden cut him off from fellowship with his Creator and left him to languish in the kingdom of darkness until he should be redeemed. The interdict could never be lifted until Jesus paid it all upon the cross; and the recognition and appreciation of the marvelous truth that Christ did indeed lift it comprise the most glorious achievement of mortal mind, nor is it to say that such a thing can ever be fully understood until earth and earthly things have passed away


Jesus said to Worship the Father Only—John-4-22-24,-Luke 4-8,- Matt 4-10 ,--

Jesus Would Not Lie To Us—So for Those Who Say He Accepted Worship—

It is Just Not in Harmony with What ***Our King***  Said---To Do !!!! See John 5-23.


Jesus is Not The Father.

                                                                    So For Those Bible Publishers


That use PROSKUNEO-Wrong---Get in Harmony With What ***OUR KING*** Said—To Do,--

        ( That all men should honour the Son )   And Start Using the

 GWGPNC Rule –Is a Simple Rule of Harmony—And That’s How Simple it is to Correct Verses.


The KING---Has Spoken---The Way--

John 4-26  In Context | Read Chapter | Discuss this Verse ]
[ Original: Greek | Multi-Translation | Make Poster ]

Jesus *said to her, "I who speak to you am He." ---- Open     KingJesusHasSPOKEN.htm


JOHN 5:23  That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the

   Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him.

(Joh 14:6)  Jesus said to him, I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life; no one comes to the Father but by Me.

There Are Many Meanings of the Word Worship


WHO IS --Using ***PROSKUNEO***RIGHT-------Test -

The Right Meaning  in each verse must harmonize with

Who Jesus Said To Worship---

Check The Bible of Your Choice

And Compare These Verses in WorshipLibraryList.htm

SBT—Reporting----Accuracy---Void of Pagan Gentile Theory Theology


The New Testament Greek Lexicon Open --
 Thayer’s Greek Definitions:
1) to kiss the hand of one, in token of reverence
2) among the Orientals, especially the Persians, to fall upon the knees and touch the ground with the forehead as an expression of profound reverence 3) in the NT by
kneeling or prostration to do homage (to one) or make obeisance, whether in order to express respect or to make supplication.


<A-1,Verb,4352,proskuneo>Open--  [worship][worshiping]AND


WorshipLibraryList.htm  —For All Verses----In Question .


Also See C/H-  WORSHIP2.htm


For Best Word Matcher –Open-   BadWordsInTheBIBLES.htm 


There are over 35 Commentaries inStudyLight and Searchgodsword  


Compare all Commentaries TO SEE If you can Find any Commentary

That Claims Jesus is the Father---Plus  Open     KingJesusHasSPOKEN.htm


Do the Nazarene Saints "Worship" Two Gods?



For What They Have Done---

Plus Any One Dedicated In Translating Accurate Scriptures.

Do Your Own (simple) Harmony Test With These Verses Matt 2.8 Matt 28.9,17 Heb 1.6 Rev 4-8-11

Or a more detailed Test with all the Verses listed above

Check 4 Bibles at Once  Open-- /        

ExAMPLE-- Matthew 2-8 open  [Context] [Commentary]

Matthew 28-9-17-open   [Context] [Commentary]

Another Quick Check C/H  


 Heb 1-3—10 Bibles at Once Open 

Look For Substance Explained in BadWordsInTheBIBLES.htm 


Open-- BestBiblesPlus.htm



Today-- There is Really only Two Types of Bibles C/H-  BiblesTwoTypes.htm



Or Open Index



The Best Bibles---Use

The GWGPNC –RULE -  God can not Lie—( Nu 23-19,--Heb 6-18 ,--Titus 1:2 -- All Truth Must Harmonize With His Words)

 and His Son -------Jesus Would Not Lie To Us - -------No Bible Reads God the Son!!!

Joh 18:37  I come into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

From the Alternative to Mysticism                    

The Best Bibles Harmonize Jesus’ Words Throughout All Scripture

-2 Tim 3-16-17,- Matt-5-17,-Gal-6-2 AND

All Greek Scriptures Must Use Harmonizing Equivalent

(Volcabulary) Words To Match Their Counter Part Words In The Hebrew Scriptures—



Most Bible translations render the Greek word aggelos (pronounced ahn gel ose – with a hard g) as angel wherever it is found. However, aggelos is just the Greek word for messenger. True, in most cases where the Bible speaks of angels, it is referring to spirit messengers from God. However, this may not be the meaning in every instance, and always translating it as angel may distort what was said in certain instances.

For example, consider the words at Acts 12:15. In Greek, the latter part of this verse reads, ‘oi de elegon Ho aggelos estin autou,’ and is often translated as, ‘They began to say, It is his angel.’ This rendering doesn’t sound reasonable. It would have been bizarre for Christians to assume that an angel from God (who looked like Peter) was standing and knocking at their door. Rather, the rendering we have used herein makes more sense, ‘So they said, It’s his messenger.’

Another good example of why aggelos shouldn’t always be translated as angels can be found at Genesis 32:3, which reads in Greek, Apasteile de Iakob aggelous emprosthen autou pros Hesau ton adelphon autou, or, Sent of Jacob angels ahead of him toward Esau the brother of him. Here Jacob was obviously sending human messengers to his brother, not heavenly ones.

Also, translating aggelos as messenger (when it truly means an ‘angel’) helps to provide readers a better, deeper understanding of the actual role that such spiritual sons of God play in His dealings with mankind.


Chapter 16

1 Sara, Abram’s wife, hadn’t given him any children. However, she had an Egyptian maid whose name was Hagar. 2 And Sara said to Abram, ‘Look, [Jehovah] has kept me from getting pregnant, so, [sleep with] my maid so I can have my children through her.’

Abram accepted Sara’s advice. 3 So, Sara, Abram’s wife, took Hagar her Egyptian handmaid (after Abram had lived in the land of Canaan for ten years) and gave her to her husband Abram, to be his woman.

4 Then [Abram] went in to [sleep with] Hagar, and she became pregnant. And when she realized that she was going to have a child, she started to be disrespectful of her mistress. 5 Then Sara said to Abram, ‘I have really been hurt by you. I gave you my handmaid [to sleep with], and when I saw that she was pregnant I was treated disrespectfully by her. May [Jehovah] judge between me and you.’

6 Then Abram told Sarah, ‘Look, your handmaid is yours; treat her any way that seems right to you.’

So, Sara started treating [Hagar] badly, and she ran away.

7 A messenger from [Jehovah] found [Hagar] by a water fountain in the desert (the fountain on the way to Sur). 8 And [Jehovah’s] messenger said to her, ‘Hagar, Sarah’s maid, where are you coming from and where are you going?’ 8 And [Jehovah’s] messenger said to her, ‘Hagar, Sarah’s maid, where are you coming from and where are you going?’

And she replied, ‘I’m running away from my mistress, Sara.’

9 Then, [Jehovah’s] messenger said, ‘Return to your mistress and obey her.’ 10 And the messenger of [Jehovah] told her, ‘I will make your seed grow, and there will be so many that they can’t be counted.’

11 And the messenger of [Jehovah] said to her, ‘Look! You are pregnant with a child. You will give birth to a son; and you should name him Ishmael, because [Jehovah] has noticed how you have been humiliated. 12 He will be a wild man. His fists [will be lifted] against everyone, and everyone [will lift] their fists against him. And he will live in the midst of all his brothers.

13 Then she called out the name of [Jehovah] God, who spoke to her, saying, ‘You are the God who watches me.’ And she added, ‘Because, I openly saw the One who appeared to me. 14 [And from that point on] she called the well, ‘the Well of Him Who I Openly Saw.’ Look, it [still can be found] between Cades and Barad.  

15 So, Hagar bore a son to Abram; and Abram named the son that Hagar bore to him, Ishmael. 16 Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram.

The New Covenant

There are few theological teachings that are less understood by the majority of Christians than the subject of the New Sacred Agreement (Covenant) that Jesus inaugurated with his Apostles during his ‘last supper,’ which immediately preceded his death and resurrection. So, what we will discuss here will start with the ‘type’ – the ‘Old Sacred Agreement’ – to show what it involved and pictured, and then we will look at the ‘antitype’ – the ‘New Sacred Agreement’ – to see how those prophecies are fulfilled in it.

The Early Sacred Agreements

The first Sacred Agreement that God made with mankind was the one He made with our common forefather Noah (as well as with ‘all creation’), where God vowed that He would never again destroy all life on earth with water. And the sign that He provided to remind us of His oath is the rainbow.

The next Sacred Agreement that He made was with faithful Abram (at Genesis 15:18-20), where He promised to give the land that was then referred to as Canaan to Abram’s descendants.

God thereafter expanded His Sacred Agreement with Abram at Genesis 17:1-14, when He changed his name to Abraham and promised that he would become the ‘father of a multitude,’ his seed would inherit the land of Canaan, He would be their God, and that nations and kings would descend from him. However, something would be required of Abraham and his descendants to fulfill their part of the Agreement; all the males who were over eight-days old and lived with him had to be circumcised.

The Sacred Agreement With Israel

It is at Exodus 19:5, 6 that we read of God extending this Agreement once more, when He spoke to the sons of Israel through Moses while they were in captivity in Egypt. There He promised, ‘Now, if you will listen to what I tell you and keep My Sacred Agreement, you will be a special people to Me that will be higher that all other nations … You will become a holy nation and My royal priesthood.’

This Agreement was extended even more at Exodus 23:24-33, where God said, ‘If you serve [Jehovah] your God, I will bless your bread, your wine, and your water, and I will keep you from getting sick. There won’t be anyone in your land that is impotent or infertile, and you will live a full life … all your enemies run from you … I will set your borders from the Red Sea to the [Mediterranean], and from the desert to the great Euphrates River … I will hand over those who are living in the land and drive them away from you. So, you are to make no Agreements with them or their gods.’

We find the children of Israel agreeing to fulfill their portion of the Agreement at Exodus 24:7, 8, where it says, ‘So, [Moses] took the scroll of the Sacred Agreement and read it to the people. And they [again] said, We will do and pay attention to everything [Jehovah] has said. Then Moses took the blood [from the bowls] and sprinkled it on the people, and he said, {Look!} This is the blood of the Sacred Agreement that [Jehovah] has made with you over the things you’ve [agreed to].’

Then we read of the next extension to this Sacred Agreement at Exodus 31:17, 18, where God gave the laws regarding the Sabbath and the Ten Commandments. So, all of God’s Laws to Israel (including the Ten Commandments) were part of this Agreement.

The Penalties

It is in Leviticus 26:14-43 that we read of the penalties the Israelites were to pay if they broke their side of the Agreement. Note some of the promised results. ‘However, if you choose not to listen to Me and obey these My rules … these are the things that I must do to youyour lives will be shortened the seeds in your ground won’t produce … I will send wild animals into the land and they will eat you and kill your cattle. You will decrease in numbers, and your [land] will become empty … I will bring a famine of bread among you … you will have to eat the flesh of your sons and daughters … I will destroy your cities … then I will scatter you among the nations.’

And no one can deny that all these things truly happened to unfaithful Israel and to the Jews, not once, but twice (first at the hands of the Babylonians and then at the hand of the Romans).

Now, did you notice that this first Sacred Agreement didn’t promise an afterlife? It just promised that if the people were faithful they would be blest, and if they weren’t faithful, they would be cursed. Now, the Israelites did in fact believe in a hereafter, but they had NOTHING IN WRITING that promised them this. So, those who were faithful simply trusted that God had something better in mind for them after they died.

Who Were Under the Old Sacred Agreement?

The answer to this question is one that seems to elude many Christians. Obviously, God made His Agreement of ‘the Old Law’ with the descendants of Abraham, and specifically the Israelites, not with any other nation of mankind. So, although the Ten Commandments in particular state God’s views on many matters, these (and the Sabbath Laws) were never given as part of an agreement with mankind in general. Therefore, people of the nations had no God-given laws or agreements until after the formation of the Christian Congregation, when they then accepted the Law of the New Sacred Agreement.

However, the Old Law and Sacred Agreement did apply to Gentiles (or people of the nations) who chose to worship Jehovah. Notice, for example, what was said about this at Numbers 15:15, 16, ‘There must be just one law for you and for the aliens who live among you … Both you and the aliens that live among you must follow the same laws and regulations.’

So, all the people in ancient Israel – the priests, the native peoples, and non-Israelites – had the same rules and promises.

The Festivals

There were four primary sacred festivals or conventions that all the people in Israel (including aliens) were to observe and attend in Jerusalem each year, the Festival of the Barley Harvest (or Passover), the Festival of the Wheat Harvest (or Pentecost), The Festival of Payment for Sins (Day of Atonement or Yom Kippur), and the Harvest Festival (Booths). All of these festivals required the people to offer sacrifices and all had to be ceremonially clean to participate in them.

So, although the Sacred Agreement was made with the Israelites who descended from Abraham, the Gentiles who chose to live among them and serve Jehovah had to:

·       Be circumcised

·       Follow the same laws

·       Offer the same sacrifices

·       Observe the same festivals.

The New Sacred Agreement

The first mention of a New Sacred Agreement is found in the book of Isaiah, for at Isaiah 55:3 we read, ‘Listen to Me, and you’ll have good things for your soul! For, with you I’ll proclaim an Agreement through the age.

Then we read at Jeremiah 31:31, ‘The days are coming … when I will make a New Sacred Agreement with the house of Israel and Judah that is unlike the one that I made with their ancestors during the time that I took them by the hand and led them out of the land of Egypt… the Agreement with Me that they broke.’

So, even before Jerusalem was destroyed and her people led away into captivity in Babylon, God saw the need to create a New Sacred Agreement with His people. What was going to be different about this Sacred Agreement? Consider Jeremiah 31:33, 34, ‘This is the Sacred Agreement that I’m going to make with the house of Israel at that time … I will put My Laws inside them and write them in their hearts. I will become their God and they will become My people. They won’t have to teach their friends and brothers to know [Jehovah], because they will all know Me, from the least to the greatest … because I will forgive their mistakes and forget their sins.’

So, according to this scripture, the key differences are:

·       The Law of this Sacred Agreement is to be written on hearts, not on stone or paper

·       Those who are involved in the New Sacred Agreement will enjoy a special relationship with God and have a personal knowledge of Jehovah

·       Their sins will be forgiven.

However, this prophecy wasn’t fulfilled until more that six-hundred years later. And like the Old Sacred Agreement, it had to be sealed with blood… the blood of the truly ‘perfect lamb,’ Jesus.

It was on the same day that Jesus was sacrificed (which started at sundown the night before, according to God’s Law) that Jesus inaugurated this New Sacred Agreement with his eleven faithful Apostles in an upper room in Jerusalem while celebrating the Passover. Together they ate the sacrificed lamb and bitter herbs, and they drank the wine that was part of the Passover meal.

Then notice what Jesus said and did (Matthew 26:26-28); ‘As they ate, Jesus took a loaf, and after giving thanks, broke it and gave it to the disciples saying, Take some and eat it, because this is my body. He also took a cup [of wine], and after giving thanks, gave it to them saying, All of you drink out of it, because, this is my blood of the Sacred Agreement, which will be poured out for many to forgive [their] sins.’

We read the same account at Luke 22:19, 20, which says, ‘Then he took a loaf [of bread], gave thanks, broke it, and gave it to them saying, This is my body, which is being handed over for you. Keep doing this in memory of me. And he did the same thing with the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the New Sacred Agreement of my blood, which is being poured out for you.’

So, when the sacrificial blood of Jesus was poured out, the New Sacred Agreement was inaugurated. However, did you notice that once again, there was no promise of a hereafter or of going to heaven? Surely, if this were part of a written agreement or contract, it should have been mentioned! All that was promised in the prophecy of Jeremiah (which is the only place where we find the terms of this New Sacred Agreement) is that God will put His Laws into their hearts, they will become His people, everyone will know God, and He will forgive their sins.

What Are the Laws of the New Sacred Agreement?

As you can see (and as Paul pointed out several times in his writings), the Old Sacred Agreement just showed men what sin was, and it condemned them to death whenever they in their imperfection violated it. And though there were promises of better things, these were never realized, because nobody (except Jesus) could live up to the Law’s requirements.

So, the New Sacred Agreement isn’t just a promise like the one God gave to Noah. Rather, Jehovah has requirements for those who wish to participate in this New Sacred Agreement. Exactly what these requirements will be wasn’t specified at that time. However, we were told that these laws would be written in our hearts.

What kind of a law could be written in hearts? Consider Jesus’ reply, when he was asked which commandment of the Law was the greatest (as found at Matthew 22:36-40), ‘You must love [Jehovah] your God with your whole heart, life, and mind. This is the first and the greatest commandment. The second, like it, is, You must love your neighbor as yourself. These two commandments are the basis of the whole Law and the Prophets.’

Then on the night before his death, Jesus gave this Law to his followers (at John 13:34, 35), ‘I’m giving you a new commandment, to love each other. Love each other just as I loved you. This is how they will know that you are my disciples, by your love for each other.’

Paul later explained (at Romans 13:10), ‘Love is the Law’s fulfillment.’

Then at 1 Corinthians 13:4-8, Paul gave a comprehensive description of what this Law of love involves. He wrote, ‘Love is kind and patient. Love isn’t envious, it doesn’t brag, it isn’t conceited, it doesn’t scheme, it doesn’t just watch out for itself, it doesn’t stir things up, it doesn’t hold a grudge, it doesn’t rejoice over unrighteous things. Rather, it rejoices over things that are true. It covers everything, believes everything, hopes everything, and endures everything. Love never fails.’

So, love is an internal thing. It resides in our hearts rather that in a book of laws. And if we fully apply this Law in our lives, it will govern us better than any written code of laws. By practicing love we show ourselves to be Jesus’ true disciples.

Notice that Paul linked love with several other positive qualities, such as kindness, patience, forgiveness, belief, hope, and endurance. However, three of these especially stand out in his conclusion at 1 Corinthians 13:13, ‘So, we now have these three things: faith, hope, and love. And the greatest of these is love.’

Therefore, while this law involves other internal things such as faith and hope (which must also be written in our hearts), the greatest portion of it is still love. Love encompasses all of these other requirements and it serves as an identifying mark, making us stand out as true worshipers of God.

And although Christians are free of any oppressive set of rules, this doesn’t mean that we are free to do whatever we wish. For, when they were faced with the question of circumcision, the Apostles and elders in the Jerusalem congregation stated that there were certain ‘necessary things’ which all Christians had to follow, namely, they had to ‘stay away from things that are sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things that are strangled, and from sexual immorality’ (Acts 15:29).

Paul also wrote of many other bad things that men do… things that a good conscience would forbid. And he said that people who do such things ‘won’t inherit God’s Kingdom’ (1 Corinthians 6:10).

The Agreement for Life in Heaven

However (as we pointed out earlier), the New Sacred Agreement never promised a resurrection to heavenly life, for no scripture speaks of such a hope being offered. And if such a thing were part of this sacred contract, it surely had to be included somewhere. So, as the promise of the First Sacred Agreement with Israel was that they would become an earthly nation of kings and priests, the same thing is implied in the Second, because no such changes are mentioned by Jeremiah… or by anyone else for that matter.

Then Jesus made another agreement (which was not part of the first) that finally spoke of the hope of a hereafter and of a resurrection to heaven. And his covenant was only offered to a select few. His wasn’t an addendum to the New Sacred Agreement, it was another agreement that he made with those who he said, ‘stuck with me during my trials.’

This added agreement was ‘for a Kingdom,’ which he offered to his eleven faithful Apostles on the eve of his death. We read of this at Luke 22:28-30, where Jesus said, ‘However, you are the ones who stuck with me during my trials. So, I’m making a sacred agreement with you, just as my Father made a sacred agreement with me, for a Kingdom… that you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom and sit on thrones to judge the twelve tribes of Israel.’

Now, since most people think that Jesus was his own Father (The God), they think that what Jesus said here in Luke was the New Sacred Agreement. Yet, notice that Jesus said his Father had made a sacred agreement with him, so now he was making his own agreement with his Apostles. The New Sacred Agreement that he had just inaugurated with Israel and Spiritual Israel was between them and his Father, but this was Jesus’ own agreement with his Apostles.

Notice that this special agreement between Jesus and his Apostles is the only one that promised life in heaven. That it was a promise of life in heaven is indicated by the words, ‘that you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom and sit on thrones.’

These words are very significant, for if you look at the methods of Hebrew Kings, such as David and Solomon, you’ll see that those who were invited to sit at the king’s table were not only his closest friends and advisors, they were also his primary governors. And the king had them sit and eat with him at his table, because he always wanted them to be close to him. Thus, when Jesus told his Apostles that they would eat and drink at his (the king’s) table, he was saying that they would be where he was, in heaven with his Father Jehovah.

Also, notice that they would ‘sit on thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel.’ So, they are to judge those who comprise the rest of the arrangement for serving God, those who also claim to be under the New Sacred Agreement, but who were not offered life in heaven. For more information about what judging the twelve tribes of Israel means, see the linked document, Jerusalem and the Israel of God.’

As you can see, this misunderstanding shows the insidiousness of the Trinity doctrine. For, when one believes that Jesus is The God and part of his Father, he/she doesn’t understand that this was another agreement that Jesus made with his Apostles, which promised them life in heaven. So, they think that everyone was offered life in heaven, and although they may have live secular, mundane, and even immoral lives, they feel that they deserve the same reward as Jesus’ faithful Apostles… they don’t. If that were true, Jesus would have offered the same agreement to all his disciples, not just to the faithful eleven. For more information, see the linked document ‘Who Was Jesus?

But, isn’t the fact that the Bible says that Israel will serve as ‘kings and priests’ an automatic promise of heavenly life? Not necessarily, for, notice that in the ‘type’ (the Sacred Agreement with fleshly Israel) there were two priesthoods. There were those of the family line of Aaron who could serve at the altar and enter the Holy Place (picturing heaven), and those of the rest of the priestly tribe of Levi, whose primary job was that of living among, and teaching and judging Israel. So, the indication is that there will be both heavenly and earthly priesthoods. (For more information, see the linked document, God’s Promise of an Inheritance.)

The fact that this agreement for a Kingdom is only mentioned in the book of Luke (not in Matthew, Mark, or John) is also very interesting. Although it was obviously one of Jesus’ most important instructions, the fact that at first the Apostles didn’t recognize (or remember) what Jesus said on that occasion, indicates that it was the guidance of God’s Holy Breath that caused them to later remember and fully appreciate this extra promise of the agreement that Jesus made with them and with others who would be ‘anointed’ and ‘chosen.’ The reason for this lapse is likely because (like most religious groups today) they may have confused this sacred agreement for a Kingdom with the New Sacred Agreement that God made with the rest of antitypical Israel.

The ‘Type’ of the Old Sacred Agreement

Remember that the first Passover was part of the tenth plague on the land of Egypt, but it provided for salvation and a way out. All who wanted their firstborn to live, regardless of whether they were Egyptians or Israelites, needed to carry out the instructions that were given to Moses. And as the result, large numbers of Egyptians and other aliens did just that and left Egypt with the Israelites (Exodus 12:38).

Now, if we look at the instruction in the Mosaic Law on how the Passover was to be observed, again we find that ALL were to partake of the Passover sacrifice, including the ‘Anointed’ Priests, the Levite Priests, the rest of the Israelites, and the ‘aliens’ who lived among them (Exodus 12:19). Jehovah didn’t give different laws to each of these groups. Rather, he said that there would be ‘just one Law,’ and it would apply to both ‘the native residents and the converts that come to live among you’ (Exodus 12:49).

Why, participation in the first Passover was a requirement for the lives of their firstborn to be spared. And by their continued celebration of the Passover, the Israelites were expressing their desire to continue to be a part of the Sacred Agreement that God made with His people.

Likewise, the New Sacred Agreement is the only means for the forgiveness of sins… and for life! On the night before his death, Jesus made it clear to his disciples that the New Sacred Agreement was about to be inaugurated, and that by their eating and drinking those emblems they would be brought under that Agreement. He further commanded them to continue this practice (Luke 22:17-20).

So, all true Christians who wish to have their sins forgiven, to have a true relationship with Jehovah, and to have the ‘life’ that God promised, must first be baptized, and then agree to be parties to the New Sacred Agreement… they must cultivate its laws in their hearts and display it in their lives. And only then may they – and should they – partake of the emblematic flesh and blood.

But what of those who decline the offer to be a part of this New Sacred Agreement and refuse to partake of the emblematic wine and unleavened bread? While refusing to do so because of a religious misunderstanding doesn’t preclude the hope of a resurrection (the Bible says that even ‘the unrighteous’ receive that), they are really saying that they don’t want God’s Laws written in their hearts, they don’t want to be His people, and they don’t want their mistakes and sins to be forgotten. ALL CHRISTIANS SHOULD AGREE TO BE A PARTY TO THE NEW SACRED AGREEMENT.

Who Are Part of the New Sacred Agreement?

If we go back to the Sacred Agreement that was given through Moses, we find that the entire nation of Israel had to agree to fulfill their part of the bargain to ratify it. So, when do those who are offered the opportunity to be a part of the New Sacred Agreement ratify their portion today? Unfortunately, this isn’t spelled out in the Bible, however it likely happens at the time of their baptism… and that is possibly when their names are written in ‘the Book of Life.’ So if this is true, then all who are baptized are in effect saying that they want to be a part of the New Sacred Agreement and that they will fulfill their part.

Does this Agreement then include everyone who is baptized into all ‘Christian’ religions, regardless of whether they remain faithful to it or not? Perhaps… and many will fail, for as Paul wrote at 2 Timothy 3:1-4, ‘The last days will bring fierce times. People will love themselves and money. They will be braggers, arrogant, blasphemers, disobedient to their parents, unthankful, and disloyal. They won’t love their families or be willing to agree on anything. They will be slanderers who don’t have any self-control. They will be wild and won’t love anything that is good. They will be betrayers who are headstrong and proud. They will prefer pleasures more than they care about God. They will have some form of religion, but they won’t follow it.’

So, just as Paul foretold, although many will think that they are obeying the laws of that Agreement, their lives may prove otherwise. Then Jesus will say to them, ‘I never knew you! Get away from me you lawbreakers (Matthew 7:23).

Sacred Agreement Only for the ‘Anointed?’

There are some who teach that the New Sacred Agreement was something that God concluded with just those ‘anointed’ or elected individuals who will rule with Jesus in heaven. However, remember that the Old Sacred Agreement was between God and the entire nation of Israel, not with just the ‘anointed’ priesthood alone. So, from our study of the Scriptures, we have concluded that all those who are called and faithful should choose to be part of the New Sacred Agreement, and prove that by partaking of the emblematic bread and wine.

Now, because they misunderstand the meaning of the New Sacred Agreement, who are a part of it, and the difference between that Agreement and Jesus’ Agreement for a Kingdom, these people teach that only those in the select heavenly group are to partake of the yeast-free bread and the wine of the ‘sacraments’ or ‘Memorial emblems.’ Is that the correct understanding? No, for the New Sacred Agreement was made with all of Spiritual Israel.

Notice that the Sacred Agreement which God spoke of at Isaiah 55:3 clearly shows that those with whom it is concluded (a ‘Spiritual Jerusalem’) were to receive their blessings here on the earth! Take, for example, the words found at Isaiah 10:16-22 (which is a prophecy about God’s judging Spiritual Israel and of the reward of those found faithful), where we read:

‘So [Jehovah] of armies will send dishonor in place of your honor and fire for your glory, for it too will be consumed by flames. This fire will then serve as the light of Israel. He’ll make her holy by burning her in fire, and it will devour her like grass in the woods on that day. It will devour mountains, hills, and forests, and it will eat the life from the flesh. And those who flee will be as those running from flames.  There will only be a few left behind; in fact, even a small child will be able to record their numbers. In that day, those who remain in Jerusalem will no longer just go along… those who were saved of Jacob will no longer yield to those who are wronging them. Rather, they will be yielding to God and to the truth of the Holy One of Israel. Then strength will be returned to those left behind of Jacob who put their trust in God, and the people of Israel will become as the sands of the sea from that small number of them that were preserved.’

So, ‘Israel’ (those of Christendom who claim to be part of the Sacred Agreement with God) will soon be judged, and only a few (a remnant) will survive this judgment, and they will obviously survive here on the earth.

Now, those who teach that the New Sacred Agreement is only with the anointed also argue that eating Jesus’ symbolic flesh and drinking his symbolic blood signifies that such a person is ‘becoming one’ with Jesus, so it should only be eaten and drunk by those who are one with him as part of his heavenly bride class. Yet, the Apostles indicated that ALL Christians were to partake of these emblems, which would then logically include faithful people who will be resurrected to the earth.

And look at what Paul wrote about the reason why Christians should all eat the bread and drink the wine (at 1 Corinthians 11:25, 26), ‘This cup is the new Sacred Agreement of my blood. Keep doing this; and as often as you drink it, think of me. For, as often as you eat the loaf and drink the cup, you keep proclaiming the death of the Lord until he comes.’

Aren’t we all to proclaim the death of the Lord until he comes?

Notice again, who Paul indicates are to partake of the emblems (at 1 Corinthians 10:17), ‘Now, there is just one loaf. And although there are many [of us], we are just one body, because we all eat from that one loaf.’

So, the Christian Congregation on earth (who currently comprise all portions of ‘the twelve tribes of Israel’) is a ‘single body,’ so all should partake of the loaf symbolizing Jesus’ body, for there are no two separate ‘bodies’ in true Christianity.

Who Should Not Partake of the Emblems

Again, going back to the original Passover, Jehovah directed that ‘No stranger may eat it,’ and ‘aliens and people you hire can’t eat it’ until they are circumcised. ‘Then they will be treated as residents in the land’ (Exodus 12:43-49).

Now, although circumcision is no longer a requirement for servants of God, Paul indicated there are standards that Christians who desire to partake of the bread and wine of the Lord’s Evening Meal must meet. Notice his words at 1 Corinthians 11:27-29, ‘Whoever eats the loaf and drinks the cup of the Lord unworthily will be held responsible to the Lord’s body and blood. So, each man should prove what he is first; then he can eat from the loaf and drink from the cup. For those who eat and drink, eat and drink judgment upon themselves if they don’t judge [the worthiness of] their bodies.’ 

Paul then continued with the instructions that each individual should ‘Judge himself’ and allow himself to be ‘disciplined by the Lord, so we aren’t condemned along with the world.’

Of course, simply partaking of the emblems of the New Sacred Agreement doesn’t really mean ‘life,’ unless it is accompanied by actions… specifically: that we demonstrate the law of love to be written in our hearts, in order to prove our worthiness.

Paul also indicated that there are requirements for the literal body. Partaking to satisfy our hunger or while we are intoxicated, shows a lack of respect for the arrangement (1 Corinthians 11:21, 22). And as he said, those who do this are ‘eating and drinking judgment on themselves,’ since their actions really display a lack of respect for Jehovah, His son, and the privilege of being part of the New Sacred Agreement

How Should the ‘Lord’s Supper’ Be Observed?

The scriptures give us very little direction in this regard, and historical records are likewise inconclusive. Therefore, we warn against being dogmatic about any viewpoint. Nevertheless, some things can be established about the gatherings of early Christian congregations and the way that they observed the ‘Lord’s Supper.’

The original Passover was a full meal, and members of the congregations met regularly for loving fellowship meals that were known as ‘agape’ or ‘love feasts’ (Jude 12). According to 1 Corinthians 11:20, 21, Christians usually ate the ‘Lord’s Supper’ during these congregational meals. But, since Paul condemned this course, some have concluded that a regular meal has no place in the observance of the ‘Lord’s Supper.’ Instead, they should (as Paul said), ‘eat at home.’

However, based on Paul’s words, the argument could also be made that the problem that Paul was speaking of was actually the manner in which they ate together. Notice what he specifically condemned. He said, ‘So, who knows who’s still hungry and who has already had too much to drink? Don’t you have houses where you can eat and drink? Or do you condemn the congregation of God and shame those who are poor?’

Then notice his concluding words on the matter at 1 Corinthians 11:33, 34, ‘So, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait for each other. And if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so you don’t meet for judgment.’

Since having congregational meals continued as a practice long after this counsel was given (see Jude 12 And 2 Peter 2:13), it doesn’t appear as though Paul was condemning the inclusion of meals as a part of their meetings, but he was addressing specific problems, and especially when it came to the sacred observance of the ‘Lord’s Supper.’

It appears as though the problem was that some were bringing food, not for the congregation to share, but for themselves only. They were also overindulging in wine, so that when the time for the observance of the ‘Lord’s Supper’ arrived, they were stuffed and sleepy from overeating and drinking, while the poor ones were likely eating the bread and wine greedily out of hunger. No wonder Paul gave them such strong council!

Then, what can we conclude is proper for our observance of the ‘Lord’s Supper?’ Since Paul told the Corinthians to ‘wait for each other,’ we should celebrate the occasion (if possible) with the whole congregation. We must also be sober, and we should partake of the emblems not out of hunger, but with deep appreciation for the New Sacred Agreement and the sacrifice and provisions of our God Jehovah, and of his son Jesus.

When Should the ‘Lord’s Supper’ be Observed?

We don’t actually know when or how often the early Christians observed the ‘Lord’s Supper,’ other than that it likely took place during their ‘love feasts.’ So, some have concluded from this that it was held regularly on several occasions during the year, which may be true.

However, notice that this sacred meal was inaugurated on the Day of Preparation during the Jewish feast of Passover. This is significant, because that festival represents the saving of Israel’s ‘firstborn,’ and the lamb (as well as the yeast-free bread and the wine) pictured Jesus’ flesh and blood. So, the Passover pictured Jesus’ sacrifice and his inauguration of the New Sacred Agreement. For that reason, it appears as though the most important time to celebrate this sacred meal is on the Day of Preparation for the Passover, which starts after sundown (when the 14th day of the Jewish month of Nisan begins), as it would be calculated in the skies over Jerusalem (Nisan starts on the new moon closest to the Spring Equinox, and the 14th day is the time of the full moon).

The Importance of a Proper Understanding

We have been told several times that the above really isn’t all that important, because God will make a way for those who don’t understand. But let’s remind you of a story of two men, one of whom saw the significance of a sacred agreement with God, and one who didn’t… one who was a spiritual man, and one who wasn’t. These men were the brothers, Jacob and Esau.

Now, we’re likely all familiar with how Esau sold his birthright (as firstborn) to his brother Jacob for a meal of stew, but have you though about what Jacob had actually purchased? The right of firstborn meant that he was to receive twice as much of the inheritance of his father’s belongings. Yet, Jacob willingly left all that behind to his elder brother when he fled the land. The important (sacred) thing to him was his father’s blessing, and the promises of the Sacred Agreements that were made with his father Isaac and his grandfather Abraham. He saw the spiritual, while his brother only saw the carnal, so he became Israel.

Now, whose path do those who don’t see the importance of a proper understanding of God’s New Sacred Agreement following? Why, for a fact, we’re sure that many who claim to be under that Agreement can’t even remember what was promised, and that they don’t see the need for all to properly show that they personally wish to be part of it!

Realize that all the Sacred Agreements discussed above were life-or-death matters (especially for Israel), and although they didn’t live to see the benefits, these promises of God meant everything to those through whom these agreements were to be fulfilled.

So, should any religious group tell their members that they are no part of the New Sacred Agreement, when all Christians should be, and that their resurrection will not be one of life but as part of ‘the rest of the dead’ of unrighteous mankind, these millions are literally being robbed of their hope of:

  • God’s Law being written in their hearts
  • Having a personal knowledge of Jehovah
  • Having their sins forgiven.

This should be a most serious matter to all spiritual people!

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